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Horizontal
curvature is a measure of flow convergence and divergence. Gravitydriven
overland and intrasoil lateral flows converge when k_{h} <
0 , and they diverge when k_{h }> 0. Geomorphologically, k_{h}
mapping allows revealing ridge and valley spurs (divergence and convergence
areas, correspondingly). Like
other local morphometric variables, horizontal
curvature can be derived from a digital
elevation model (DEM) by finitedifference methods (e.g., IF2009 method and IF1998 method) as well as the universal spectral
analytical method. Example**. A model of horizontal curvature was
derived from a DEM of Mount Ararat by the universal spectral analytical
method. The model includes 779,401 points (the matrix 1081 x
721); the grid spacing is 1". To deal with the large
dynamic range of this variable, its
values were logarithmically transformed.
The vertical exaggeration of the 3D model is 2x. The data processing and modelling were carried out using the software Matlab R2008b. References
*
Shary, P.A., 1995. Land surface in gravity points classification by a
complete system of curvatures. Mathematical Geology, 27: 373–390.
** Florinsky,
I.V., 2017. An illustrated introduction to
general geomorphometry. Progress in Physical Geography, 41:
723–752. doi pdf
For
details and other examples, see:
