en ru 
Vertical excess curvature (k_{ve}) is a
difference of vertical and minimal curvatures*. The unit of measurement is m^{1}. , where
k_{v}, k_{min }, M, and E are vertical, minimal, unsphericity, and difference curvatures,
correspondingly. Vertical excess curvature describes to what extent
vertical curvature is larger than
minimal curvature at the given point of
the topographic surface. Like other local morphometric
variables, vertical excess
curvature can be derived
from a digital elevation model (DEM) by finitedifference
methods (e.g., IF2009
method and IF1998
method) as well as the universal spectral
analytical method. Example**. A model of vertical excess curvature was
derived from a DEM of Mount Ararat by the universal spectral analytical
method. The model includes 779,401 points (the matrix 1081 x
721); the grid spacing is 1". To deal with the large
dynamic range of this variable, its
values were logarithmically transformed.
The vertical exaggeration of the 3D model is 2x. The data processing and modelling were carried out using the software Matlab R2008b. References
*
Shary, P.A., 1995. Land surface in gravity points classification by a
complete system of curvatures. Mathematical Geology, 27: 373–390.
** Florinsky,
I.V., 2017. An illustrated introduction to
general geomorphometry. Progress in Physical Geography, 41:
723–752. doi pdf
For
details and other examples, see:
